Science is the concerted human effort to understand, or to understand better, the history of the natural world and how the natural world works, with observable physical evidence as the basis of that understanding1.
Paleontology and stratigraphy During the 17th century the guiding principles of paleontology and historical geology began to emerge in the work of a few individuals. Nicolaus Stenoa Danish scientist and theologian, presented carefully reasoned arguments favouring the organic origin of what are now called fossils.
Also, he elucidated three principles that made possible the reconstruction of certain kinds of geologic events in a chronological order. This excursion into paleontology led Steno to confront a broader question.
Steno cited evidence to show that when the hard parts of an organism are covered with sediment, it is they and not the aggregates of sediment that are firm.
Consolidation of the sediment into rock may come later, and, if so, the original solid fossil becomes encased in solid rock.
He recognized that sediments settle from fluids layer by layer to form strata that are originally continuous and nearly horizontal. His principle of superposition of strata states that in a sequence of strata, as originally laid down, any stratum is younger than the one on which it rests and older than the one that rests upon it.
Hooke argued for the organic nature of fossils. Elevation of beds containing marine fossils to mountainous heights he attributed to the work of earthquakes.
Streams attacking these elevated tracts wear down the hills, fill depressions with sediment, and thus level out irregularities of the landscape. Earth history according to Werner and James Hutton The two major theories of the 18th century were the Neptunian and the Plutonian. The Neptunistsled by Werner and his students, maintained that the Earth was originally covered by a turbid ocean.
The first sediments deposited over the irregular floor of this universal ocean formed the granite and other crystalline rocks.
The Scottish scientist James Huttonleader of the Plutonists, viewed the Earth as a dynamic body that functions as a heat machine. Streams wear down the continents and deposit their waste in the sea.
Subterranean heat causes the outer part of the Earth to expand in places, uplifting the compacted marine sediments to form new continents. Hutton recognized that granite is an intrusive igneous rock and not a primitive sediment as the Neptunists claimed. Intrusive sills and dikes of igneous rock provide evidence for the driving force of subterranean heat.
Hutton viewed great angular unconformities separating sedimentary sequences as evidence for past cycles of sedimentationupliftand erosion.
His Theory of the Earthpublished as an essay inwas expanded to a two-volume work in John Playfaira professor of natural philosophy, defended Hutton against the counterattacks of the Neptunists, and his Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory is the clearest contemporary account of Plutonist theory.
Hydrologic sciences The idea that there is a circulatory system within the Earth, by which seawater is conveyed to mountaintops and there discharged, persisted until early in the 18th century.
Two questions left unresolved by this theory were acknowledged even by its advocates. How is seawater forced uphill? How is the salt lost in the process? To explain the rise of subterranean water beneath mountains, the chemist Robert Plot appealed to the pressure of airwhich forces water up the insides of mountains.
The French Huguenot Bernard Palissy maintained, to the contrary, that rainfall is the sole source of rivers and springs.Psychology and Geology Essay - Psychology is the study of the mind and the behavior of mammals.
Geology is a science that deals with the history of the earth and its life, recorded in rocks. The earth is consistently moving its tectonic plates. In , Heezen took some of the findings webkandii.com he presented on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at Princeton, one eminent geologist responded, "Young man, you have shaken the foundations of geology!”.
Get a Break on Your College Expenses. The physical and life sciences are the collegiate facet dedicated to the study of the corporal world: bodies, mass, the landscape and the understanding of how people and nature grow and move within their environment.
Victor R. Baker is Regents Professor and Head of the Department of Hydrology and Water Resources at the University of Arizona. He was also the President of the Geological Society of America.
Baker has authored over scientific research papers and several books concerned with paleohydrology, geomorphology, planetary geology, the history and philosophy of Earth science, and the role of.
Earth sciences - Paleontology and stratigraphy: During the 17th century the guiding principles of paleontology and historical geology began to emerge in the work of a few individuals. Nicolaus Steno, a Danish scientist and theologian, presented carefully reasoned arguments favouring the organic origin of what are now called fossils.
Also, . Earth Science: Exploring the Geology of Planet Earth Words | 7 Pages. The physical geology of the earth consists of a Core (inner and outer), the mantle, the asthenosphere and the lithosphere.