Some philosophers focus on analyzing linguistic phenomena, such as sentenceswhile others focus on psychological phenomena, such as sense data. However, arguably the most prominent analyses are of concepts or propositionswhich is known as conceptual analysis Foley
Philosophical Analysis 'Contrariwise,' continued Tweedledee, 'if it was so, it might be; and if it were so, it would be; but as it isn't, it ain't. An analytic discipline is one that engages in analysis Philosophical analysis that analyzes.
To 'analyze' here means to separate into constituent components or elements, i. Analysis is then a critical and reductive process-reductive in that it reduces phenomena or concepts to their most basic components and critical in the sense that the process is rigorous, systematic and rational.
Critical also suggests the analysis tries, in some sense, to discover the truth about the phenomena or concept in question. The principal focus in philosophical analysis is on ideas Philosophical analysis concepts.
Since good philosophical analysis depends upon the abilities to give precise definitions to concepts and to formulate, isolate and criticize logical arguments, the principle analytic tools in philosophical investigations are: The main purpose in this article is to define and discuss the most common concepts that sound conceptual analysis and logical analysis depend upon.
Consider the linguistic structures: The white cat caught the mouse. The cat white mouse the caught. In both instances one can understand the individual words within the structures, however, in contrast to 2 which is ungrammatical nonsense, 1 also represents a grammatical English linguistic structure, i.
What distinguishes 1 and 2 then, is that because 1 is grammatical the entire structure, in addition to the individual words, makes sense - it communicates more information than the individual words themselves.
Philosophers use the terms 'statement' or 'proposition' to indicate what a sentence expresses or means. Since a proposition makes an assertion e. The sentence, in contrast, is never true or false, but rather is either grammatical or ungrammatical.
It is important to note that not all sentences express propositions, i. Thus, while genuine questions 'Is Superman real? Thus, without the distinction translation between languages and synonymous expressions within languages become impossible. All men are mortal.
Socrates is a man. Thus, Socrates is mortal. In this illustration, neither sentence 12 nor 3 alone represents an argument. An argument emerges when the propositions that sentences 1 and 2 express are taken as premises that purport to demonstrate or prove a conclusion - the proposition that sentence 3 expresses.
The premises then represent reasons to believe that the conclusion is true. As such the premises can be either: Assumptions that the argument never proves. Factual statements or observations. In contrast to the premises, which an argument either assumes or states, the conclusion is the sole proposition that the argument claims to prove.
An important clue that a particular sentence represents a conclusion are such words and phrases as, 'entails', 'implies', 'because', 'therefore', 'thus', 'hence', 'so', 'since', 'suggests', 'is deducible', 'is inferable', 'on this account', 'as a consequence', 'as a result', 'it follows that', and so on.
Arguments come in all sizes, i. Some complex arguments can contain one or more intermediate conclusions prior to the main or final conclusion. In most cases these intermediate conclusions become premises in the other arguments that, in the end, are meant to support the final conclusion.
It is sometimes difficult to isolate arguments or even determine whether an argument existsnevertheless there are some cases where it is obvious that no logical argument is being made.
In particular, it is important to distinguish logical arguments and causal statements, such as: What an argument attempts to demonstrate, in contrast, is that because certain statements are true then it is possible to conclude that other statements must also true. This connection between the premises and conclusion in an argument is known as logical entailment, i.
The relationship that an argument attempts to establishment then is logical, rather than causal. The problem is that causal statements and arguments often use the same language, and it is possible that an argument might include causal statements as premises or perhaps even as a conclusion.
Nevertheless, the point is that causal statements, on their own, fail to constitute a logical arguments. To evaluate arguments logicians use the concepts 'valid', 'invalid', 'sound' and 'unsound'.
Valid and Invalid Arguments: The concepts 'valid' and 'invalid' concern an argument's formal structure, rather than the argument's substantive claims.This book provides a philosophical analysis of adult–child sex and pedophilia.
This sex intuitively strikes many people as sick, disgusting, and wrong. The problem is that it is not clear whether these judgments are justified and whether they are aesthetic or moral.2/5(1).
Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world and dates to Pre-Socratic thinkers who were active in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE such as Thales Pierre Hadot is famous for his analysis on the conception of philosophy during Greco-Roman antiquity. Hadot identified and analyzed the "spiritual exercises" used.
Acknowledging that philosophical ideas are embedded in their emotions demonstrates to students how relevant philosophical analysis is to their lives.
Thinking with film engaging the emotions This is a fairly technical text, drawing on not just philosophical analysis but formal linguistics as well. Philosophical analysis definition: a philosophical method in which language and experience are analysed in an attempt to | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples.
Philosophical analysis definition: a philosophical method in which language and experience are analysed in an attempt to | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples.
The Singularity: A Philosophical Analysis David J. Chalmers 1 Introduction What happens when machines become more intelligent than humans? One view is that this event will be followed by an explosion to ever-greater levels of intelligence, as each generation of ma-chines creates more intelligent machines in turn.